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A JeVois dice counting module in C++

Here we develop a simple C++ OpenCV vision module that counts the total number of pips on some dice presented to JeVois. This application scenario was suggested by JeVois user mapembert at the JeVois Tech Zone in this post:

http://jevois.org/qa/index.php?qa=328

In this tutorial, you will learn:

This tutorial assumes JeVois v1.3 or later.

Because we need to cross-compile C++ code for execution on the JeVois processor, this tutorial is for Linux only.

See JeVois python tutorial: A dice counting module for an implementation of this algorithm in Python + OpenCV (Linux, Windows, or Mac host).

Preliminaries

Setting up a new C++ module

The easiest to get started is to grab a copy of the samplemodule in the JeVois github https://github.com/jevois/samplemodule and to modify it.

If you have installed the jevois-sdk and followed the instructions in Setting up for programming JeVois, you should use the script jevois-create-module which will grab that sample code from GitHub, and will also immediately change names of classes and files to match our new module's name: usage is jevois-create-module <VendorName> <ModuleName>, so here let us just run:

cd
jevois-create-module Tutorial DiceCounter

you should now have the following:

dicecounter
├── CMakeLists.txt
├── COPYING
├── INSTALL
├── README
├── rebuild-host.sh
├── rebuild-platform.sh
└── src
    └── Modules
        └── DiceCounter
            ├── DiceCounter.C
            ├── icon.png
            ├── postinstall
            └── screenshot1.png

The algorithm

The author of the original module mentioned in the above post, Yohann Payet, sent us his code, which is written in C++ and as follows (this is standalone code not intended for operation on JeVois; in this tutorial we will convert adapt it for use in JeVois):

// Created by Yohann Payet (mechanical/embedded systems engineer)
// Using opencv,c++
// Contact Y.Payet@hotmail.com
#include "opencv2/highgui/highgui.hpp"
#include "opencv2/imgproc/imgproc.hpp"
#include "opencv2/features2d.hpp"
#include <iostream>
int main() {
cv::Mat im_with_keypoints; std::vector<cv::KeyPoint> keypoints;
cv::Mat grayImage, camFrame, kernel;
int morphBNo2 = 2;
char str[200];
//Setting detector parameters
cv::SimpleBlobDetector::Params params;
params.filterByCircularity = true;
params.filterByArea = true;
params.minArea = 200.0f;
//Creating a detector object
cv::Ptr<cv::SimpleBlobDetector> detector = cv::SimpleBlobDetector::create(params);
//video capture settings
cv::VideoCapture cap(1); // open the default camera
cap.set(CV_CAP_PROP_FRAME_WIDTH, 640);
cap.set(CV_CAP_PROP_FRAME_HEIGHT, 480);
//checking video stream
if (!cap.isOpened()) { // check if we succeeded
std::cout << ("Failure to open camera") << "\n";
std::cin.get();
}
else {
for (;;) {
// get a new frame from camera
cap >> camFrame;
//converting video to single channel grayscale
cv::cvtColor(camFrame, grayImage, CV_BGR2GRAY);
grayImage.convertTo(grayImage, CV_8U);
//filter noise
cv::GaussianBlur(grayImage, grayImage, cvSize(5, 5), 0, 0);
//apply automatic threshold
cv::threshold(grayImage, grayImage, 0.0, 255, cv::THRESH_BINARY_INV | cv::THRESH_OTSU);
//background area
cv::dilate(grayImage, grayImage, kernel, cv::Point(-1, -1), morphBNo2);
cv::Mat image(grayImage.rows, grayImage.cols, CV_8U, cv::Scalar(255, 255, 255));
cv::Mat invBack2 = image - grayImage;
//blob detection
detector->detect(invBack2, keypoints);
int nrOfBlobs = keypoints.size();
// draw keypoints
cv::drawKeypoints(camFrame, keypoints, im_with_keypoints, cv::Scalar(0, 0, 255),
cv::DrawMatchesFlags::DRAW_RICH_KEYPOINTS);
//text only appears if at least 1 blob is detected
if (nrOfBlobs >0 ) {
sprintf(str, "total pips: %d ", nrOfBlobs);
cv::putText(im_with_keypoints, str, cv::Point2f(10, 25), cv::FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN,
2, cv::Scalar(0, 255, 255, 255));
}
//show image
imshow("keypoints", im_with_keypoints);
std::cout << "number of pips: " << nrOfBlobs << std::endl;
//hit esc to quit
if (cv::waitKey(1) == 27) break;
}
}
return 0 ;
}

Our tasks now are:

Deciding on capture and output resolutions

This algorithm was written for 640x480 resolution. Let us use that in our module as well. We edit ~/dicecounter/src/Modules/DiceCounter/postinstall as follows:

jevois-add-videomapping YUYV 640 480 17 YUYV 640 480 17 Tutorial DiceCounter

The postinstall script will be run by the JeVois camera after we install our new module to microSD. The video mapping required by our module and defined in postinstall will then be added to the main videomappings.cfg file on the microSD. Note that postinstall applies to the platform hardware only. To add the videomapping to your host configuration, just run the above command on your host computer (using sudo).

Note how here we have chosen 17 frames/s as our initial guess for framerate. Because 640x480 is a popular resolution, this will also allow us to avoid clashes with other modules that use this same resolution but rates of 30 frames/s or others. We will adjust this rate later once we know how fast this algorithm runs on JeVois.

Initial import to live microSD

The JeVois samplemodule runs fine out of the box and thus our module should run as well if we have not introduced any mistakes.

Compiling and installing the module to live microSD inside a connected JeVois camera has been automated through CMake, just connect JeVois and let it boot, then type:

cd ~/dicecounter
./rebuild-platform.sh --live

Which will instruct JeVois to export its microSD as a virtual flash drive to the host computer, will copy the required files, and will eject the drive to reboot JeVois. The module will be ready for use once JeVois has restarted.

You should see an output like this:

itti@iLab1:~/dicecounter$ ./rebuild-platform.sh --live
-- JeVois version 1.2.3
-- JEVOIS_PLATFORM: ON
-- JEVOIS_VENDOR: Tutorial
-- JeVois microSD card mount point: /media/itti/JEVOIS
-- JeVois serial-over-USB device: /dev/ttyACM0
-- JEVOIS_MODULES_TO_STAGING: OFF
-- JEVOIS_MODULES_TO_MICROSD: OFF
-- JEVOIS_MODULES_TO_LIVE: ON
-- Install prefix for executable programs: /var/lib/jevois-build/usr
-- Host path to jevois modules root: /var/lib/jevois-microsd
-- The C compiler identification is GNU 6.1.0
-- The CXX compiler identification is GNU 6.1.0
-- Check for working C compiler: /lab/itti/jevois/software/jevois-sdk/out/sun8iw5p1/linux/common/buildroot/host/usr/bin/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf-gcc
-- Check for working C compiler: /lab/itti/jevois/software/jevois-sdk/out/sun8iw5p1/linux/common/buildroot/host/usr/bin/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -- works
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info
-- Detecting C compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting C compile features
-- Detecting C compile features - done
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /lab/itti/jevois/software/jevois-sdk/out/sun8iw5p1/linux/common/buildroot/host/usr/bin/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf-g++
-- Check for working CXX compiler: /lab/itti/jevois/software/jevois-sdk/out/sun8iw5p1/linux/common/buildroot/host/usr/bin/arm-buildroot-linux-gnueabihf-g++ -- works
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info
-- Detecting CXX compiler ABI info - done
-- Detecting CXX compile features
-- Detecting CXX compile features - done
-- JeVois SDK root: /lab/itti/jevois/software/jevois-sdk
-- Adding compilation directives for C++ module DiceCounter base src/Modules
-- Configuring done
-- Generating done
-- Build files have been written to: /lab/itti/dicecounter/pbuild
Scanning dependencies of target modinfo_DiceCounter
[ 50%] Generating ../src/Modules/DiceCounter/modinfo.yaml, ../src/Modules/DiceCounter/modinfo.html
[ 50%] Built target modinfo_DiceCounter
Scanning dependencies of target DiceCounter
[100%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/DiceCounter.dir/src/Modules/DiceCounter/DiceCounter.C.o
Linking CXX shared library DiceCounter.so
[100%] Built target DiceCounter
[ 50%] Built target modinfo_DiceCounter
[100%] Built target DiceCounter
Install the project...
-- Install configuration: ""
JeVois smart camera virtual USB ready at /media/itti/JEVOIS
-- Installing: /media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter
-- Installing: /media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/postinstall
-- Installing: /media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/screenshot1.png
-- Installing: /media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/icon.png
-- Installing: /media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/DiceCounter.so
-- Removed runtime path from "/media/itti/JEVOIS/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/DiceCounter.so"
JeVois smart camera virtual USB disk ejected -- rebooting JeVois

Trying out the initial sample module

Fire up your video capture software and set it to 640x480 @ 17fps. You should see the sample python module running, but under our new name:

cdice1.png

Implementing the module

Let us just edit DiceCounter.C to use the code above. The main changes are:

Here is the resulting code:

//! Counting dice pips
/*! This module can help you automate counting your dice values, for example when playing games that involve throwing
multiple dice.
This application scenario was suggested by JeVois user mapembert at the [JeVois Tech Zone](http://jevois.org/qa)
in this post:
http://jevois.org/qa/index.php?qa=328
The code implemented by this module is a modified version of original code (mentioned in the above post) contributed
by Yohann Payet.
@author Laurent Itti
@videomapping YUYV 640 480 17.0 YUYV 640 480 17.0 SampleVendor DiceCounter
@email sampleemail\@samplecompany.com
@address 123 First Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012
@copyright Copyright (C) 2017 by Sample Author
@mainurl http://samplecompany.com
@supporturl http://samplecompany.com/support
@otherurl http://samplecompany.com/about
@license GPL v3
@distribution Unrestricted
@restrictions None */
{
public:
//! Constructor
DiceCounter(std::string const & instance) : jevois::Module(instance)
{
// Setting detector parameters
cv::SimpleBlobDetector::Params params;
params.filterByCircularity = true;
params.filterByArea = true;
params.minArea = 200.0f;
// Creating a detector object
itsDetector = cv::SimpleBlobDetector::create(params);
}
//! Virtual destructor for safe inheritance
virtual ~DiceCounter() { }
//! Processing function
virtual void process(jevois::InputFrame && inframe, jevois::OutputFrame && outframe) override
{
static jevois::Timer timer("processing");
// Wait for next available camera image:
jevois::RawImage const inimg = inframe.get(); unsigned int const w = inimg.width, h = inimg.height;
timer.start();
// We only support YUYV pixels in this example, any resolution:
inimg.require("input", inimg.width, inimg.height, V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV);
// Start a thread to wait for output image anc opy input into output:
std::future<void> fut = std::async(std::launch::async, [&]() {
// Wait for an image from our gadget driver into which we will put our results:
outimg = outframe.get();
// Enforce that the input and output formats and image sizes match:
outimg.require("output", w, h, inimg.fmt);
// Just copy the pixel data over:
jevois::rawimage::paste(inimg, outimg, 0, 0);
});
// Detect dice pips: First convert input to grayscale:
cv::Mat grayImage = jevois::rawimage::convertToCvGray(inimg);
// filter noise
cv::GaussianBlur(grayImage, grayImage, cvSize(5, 5), 0, 0);
// apply automatic threshold
cv::threshold(grayImage, grayImage, 0.0, 255, cv::THRESH_BINARY_INV | cv::THRESH_OTSU);
// background area
cv::Mat kernel; // not initialized??
int const morphBNo2 = 2;
cv::dilate(grayImage, grayImage, kernel, cv::Point(-1, -1), morphBNo2);
cv::Mat image(grayImage.rows, grayImage.cols, CV_8U, cv::Scalar(255, 255, 255));
cv::Mat invBack2 = image - grayImage;
// blob detection
std::vector<cv::KeyPoint> keypoints;
itsDetector->detect(invBack2, keypoints);
int nrOfBlobs = keypoints.size();
// Wait until our other thread is done:
fut.get();
// Let camera know we are done processing the input image:
inframe.done();
// draw keypoints
for (cv::KeyPoint const & kp : keypoints)
jevois::rawimage::drawCircle(outimg, int(kp.pt.x + 0.5F), int(kp.pt.y + 0.5F), int(kp.size * 0.5F),
2, jevois::yuyv::LightGreen);
// Show number of detected pips:
jevois::rawimage::writeText(outimg, "JeVois dice counter: " + std::to_string(nrOfBlobs) + " pips",
3, 3, jevois::yuyv::White);
// Show processing fps:
std::string const & fpscpu = timer.stop();
jevois::rawimage::writeText(outimg, fpscpu, 3, h - 13, jevois::yuyv::White);
// Send the output image with our processing results to the host over USB:
outframe.send();
}
private:
cv::Ptr<cv::SimpleBlobDetector> itsDetector;
};
// Allow the module to be loaded as a shared object (.so) file:

Result

You should see something like this:

cdice2.png

Note that this algorithm runs a bit slow on JeVois, about 8 frames/s. One could adjust the videomapping accordingly.

Interestingly, it runs at about the same speed with this implementation as the Python implementation developed in JeVois python tutorial: A dice counting module, although we had hypothesized in that Python tutorial that we might be able to make the C++ code run faster! Here is the reason: Image conversion from YUYV to BGR and to grayscale (in img = inframe.getCvBGR() and grayImage = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY) of the python code, and from BGR to YUYV in outframe.sendCvBGR(im_with_keypoints) is not counted as processing time in the Python module, but all conversions are counted by the timer of the C++ implementation. So the C++ algorithm including all conversions runs about as fast as just the core of the Python implementation not including any conversion. In any case, it looks like the JeVois and the OpenCV Python bindings are indeed quite efficient!

Given that anyone is unlikely to be needing any kind of fast frame rate for this application (since dice will not get thrown too often), here no further optimization is necessary. The low frame rate will allow the camera sensor to perform well even in low light conditions.

Packing the module

To create a nice packaged module that you can send to your friends, just type:

./rebuild-platform.sh

Which installs instead to a directory jvpkg in your module:

Install the project...
-- Install configuration: ""
-- Installing: /lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter
-- Installing: /lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/postinstall
-- Installing: /lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/screenshot1.png
-- Installing: /lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/icon.png
-- Installing: /lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/DiceCounter.so
-- Removed runtime path from "/lab/itti/dicecounter/jvpkg/modules/Tutorial/DiceCounter/DiceCounter.so"

You would then finally type:

cd pbuild
make jvpkg

which creates ~/dicecounter/Tutorial_dicecounter.jvpkg

You can send that file to your friends, and tell them to copy it to JEVOIS:/packages/ on their microSD. Next time JeVois restarts, it will unpack, install, configure, and delete the package, and the new module will be ready for use.

Final note

This module has now been integrated into jevoisbase, as the DiceCounter module with output resolution 640x480 @ 7.5 fps.